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Prof Patrick McAndrew

Emeritus Professor

Biography

Patrick McAndrew is Professor of Open Education and Director of the Institute of Educational Technology (IET) in The Open University.

IET is a strategic academic unit carrying out research, supporting the University and offering post-graduate qualifications in online and distance education. IET research considers new forms of pedagogy afforded by technological developments and how these can be deployed to support learning. IET's strategic programmes include developing learning analytics and learning design to drive quality enhancement processes in the University. IET has a major role to play in accessibility for disabled students, ensuring that their learning experience remains rich and varied, and enables them to achieve their learning goals.
 
In his own research Professor McAndrew has taken a leading part in the development of approaches to open and free learning. Recent projects in this area include OpenLearn, OLnet, Bridge to Success and the OER Research Hub. These projects combine practice and research on the impact of openness. He has had an active role in over 40 funded-projects across technology enhanced learning.
 
He has a degree in Mathematics from University of Oxford and a PhD in Computer Vision from Heriot-Watt University.
 

Publications

2022

Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). A qualitative study to understand the perspectives of MOOC providers on accessibility. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 38 (1) pp. 87-101.

2019

Ferguson, Rebecca; Coughlan, Tim; Egelandsdal, Kjetil; Gaved, Mark; Herodotou, Christothea; Hillaire, Garron; Jones, Derek; Jowers, Iestyn; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; McAndrew, Patrick; Misiejuk, Kamila; Ness, Ingun Johanna; Rienties, Bart; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike; Wasson, Barbara; Weller, Martin and Whitelock, Denise (). Innovating Pedagogy 2019: Open University Innovation Report 7. The Open University, Milton Keynes.
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). Auditing the accessibility of MOOCs: a four-component approach. In: EC-TEL 2019 Fourteenth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, 16-19 Sep 2019, Delft (Netherlands).

2018

McAndrew, Patrick; Anastopoulou, Stamatina and Scanlon, Eileen. (). Transformative approaches in distance online education: aligning evidence to influence the design of teaching at scale. In: L@S 2018: Fifth (2018) ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale, 26-28 Jun 2018, London, UK.
Davies, Gareth; Gaved, Mark; McAndrew, Patrick; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen; Hausel, Katalin and Apostol, Ileana (). D3.9 Comparative evaluation of the MAZI pilots (version 2). European Commission.

2017

Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). An investigation into the perspectives of providers and learners on MOOC accessibility. In: TEEM'17: international conference technological ecosystems for enhancing multiculurality, 18-20 Oct 2017, Cadiz, Spain.
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). Auditing the accessibility of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In: 14th AAATE Congress 2017, 13-14 Sep 2017, Sheffield.
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). What do MOOC providers think about accessibility?. In: EARLI 2017: Education in the crossroads of economy and politics – Role of research in the advancement of public good, 29 Aug - 2 Sep 2017, Tampere, Finland.
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). What are the expectations of disabled learners when participating in a MOOC?. In: L@S '17 Proceedings of the Fourth (2017) ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 225-228.
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). How can MOOCs be more accessible?. In: OER17: The Politics of Open, 5 & 6 Apr 2017, London.
Weller, Martin; de los Arcos, Beatriz; Farrow, Robert; Pitt, Rebecca and McAndrew, Patrick (). What Can OER Do for Me? Evaluating the Claims for OER. In: Jhangiani, R. S. and Biswas-Diener, R. eds. Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science London, UK: Ubiquity Press, pp. 67-78.

2016

Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). Accessibility of MOOCs: Understanding the Provider Perspective. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.
Weller, Martin; de los Arcos, Beatriz; Farrow, Rob; Pitt, Rebecca and McAndrew, Patrick (). Identifying Categories of Open Educational Resource Users. In: Blessinger, Patrick and Bliss, TJ eds. Open Education: International Perspectives in Higher Education Open Book Publishers, pp. 73-92.
Sharples, M.; Adams, A.; Alozie, N.; Ferguson, R.; FitzGerald, E.; Gaved, M.; McAndrew, P.; Means, B.; Remold, J.; Rienties, B.; Roschelle, J.; Vogt, K.; Whitelock, D. and Yarnall, L.. (). 创新教学报告2015 —探索教学、学习与评价的新形式 [Innovating Pedagogy 2015]. 开放学习研究 [Open Learning] pp. 1-18.
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey and Coughlan, Tim. (). The current state of accessibility of MOOCs: What are the next steps?. In: Open Education Global Conference 2016, 12-14 Apr 2016, Krakow, Poland.
Roschelle, Jeremy; Yarnall, Louise; Sharples, Mike and McAndrew, Patrick (). Future Research Directions for Innovating Pedagogy. In: Verbert, Katrien; Sharples, Mike and Klobučar, Tomaž eds. Adaptive and Adaptable Learning Cham: Springer, pp. 648-651.

2015

Weller, Martin; de los Arcos, Bea; Farrow, Rob; Pitt, Beck and McAndrew, Patrick. (). The Impact of OER on Teaching and Learning Practice. Open Praxis, 7 (4) pp. 351-361.
McAndrew, Patrick. (). Innovating for Learning: Designing for the Future of Education. In: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on e-Learning, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, Reading, UK, 356-363.
Farrow, Robert; Pitt, Rebecca; de los Arcos, Beatriz; Perryman, Leigh-Anne; Weller, Martin and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Impact of OER use on teaching and learning: data from OER Research Hub (2013–2014). British Journal of Educational Technology, 46 (5) pp. 972-976.
Scanlon, Eileen; O'Shea, Tim and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Technology-enhanced learning: evidence-based improvement. In: Proceedings of the Second (2015) ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale, ACM, 229-232.
Brasher, Andrew; McAndrew, Patrick; Chacón, J.; Christodoulaki, K.; Serrano, M. A.; Asensio, J. I.; Dimitriadis, Y.; Pozzi, F.; Derntl, M. and Persico, D. (). METIS D3.4: Final workshops packages: workshops for different educational levels and education contexts. European Union.
Iacovides, Ioanna; Cox, Anna L.; McAndrew, Patrick; Aczel, James and Scanlon, Eileen. (). Game-Play Breakdowns and Breakthroughs: Exploring the Relationship Between Action, Understanding, and Involvement. Human–Computer Interaction, 30 (3-4) pp. 202-231.

2014

Iacovides, Ioanna; McAndrew, Patrick; Scanlon, Eileen and Aczel, James. (). The gaming involvement and informal learning framework. Simulation & Gaming, 45 (4-5) pp. 611-626.
Scanlon, Eileen; McAndrew, Patrick and O'Shea, Tim. (). Distance learning, OER, and MOOCs: some UK experiences. In: Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning @ scale conference (L@S '14), ACM, New York, NY, USA, 167-168.

2013

Pitt, Rebecca; Ebrahimi, Nassim; McAndrew, Patrick and Coughlan, Tim. (). Assessing OER impact across organisations and learners: experiences from the Bridge to Success project. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.
Coughlan, Tim; Pitt, Rebecca and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Building open bridges: collaborative remixing and reuse of open educational resources across organisations. In: 2013 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ‘changing perspectives’ (CHI 2013), 29 Apr - 02 May 2013, Paris, France.
Coughlan, Tim; Ebrahimi, Nassim; McAndrew, Patrick and Pitt, Rebecca. (). Assessing OER impact across varied organisations and learners: experiences from the "Bridge to Success" initiative. In: OER13: Creating a Virtuous Circle, 26-27 Mar 2013, Nottingham, UK.
McAndrew, Patrick and Farrow, Robert. (). The ecology of sharing: synthesizing OER research. In: OER 13: Creating a virtuous circle, 26-27 Mar 2013, Nottingham.
McAndrew, Patrick and Farrow, Robert (). Open education research: from the practical to the theoretical. In: McGreal, Rory; Kinuthia, Wanjira and Marshall, Stewart eds. Open Educational Resources: Innovation, Research and Practice Vancouver, Canada: Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University, pp. 65-78.

2012

McAndrew, Patrick; Farrow, Robert and Cooper, Martyn. (). Adapting online learning resources for all: planning for professionalism in accessibility. Research in Learning Technology, 20 (4) pp. 345-361.
Law, Patrina; McAndrew, Patrick; Law, Andrew; Warner, Kathy; Runyon, Jean; Lascu, David; Arundel, Anne and Muramatsu, Brandon. (). A bridge to success. In: Cambridge 2012: Innovation and Impact – Openly Collaborating to Enhance Education, a joint meeting of OER12 and OpenCourseWare Consortium Global 2012, 16-18 Apr 2012, Cambridge, UK.
McAndrew, Patrick; Farrow, Robert; Law, Patrina and Elliott-Cirigottis, Gary. (). Learning the Lessons of Openness. In: Cambridge 2012: Innovation and Impact – Openly Collaborating to Enhance Education, a joint meeting of OER12 and OpenCourseWare Consortium Global 2012, 16-18 Apr 2012, Cambridge, UK.
De Liddo, Anna; Buckingham Shum, Simon; McAndrew, Patrick and Farrow, Robert. (). The open education evidence hub: a collective intelligence tool for evidence based policy. In: Cambridge 2012: Joint OER12 and OpenCourseWare Consortium Global 2012 Conference, 16-18 Apr 2012, Cambridge, UK.
McAndrew, Patrick; Farrow, Robert; Law, Patrina and Elliott-Cirigottis, Gary. (). Learning the lessons of openness. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.

2011

Mendonca, Murilo Matos; McAndrew, Patrick and Santos, Andreia (). Freeing up access to learning: the role for Open Educational Resources. In: Baldazzi, Anna; Ricci, Laura and Baros, Valentina Valle eds. E-Learning quality assurance: a multi-perspective approach Rome, Italy: Gangemi Editore spa, pp. 121-138.
Wilson, Tina; McAndrew, Patrick and Meiszner, Andreas. (). Sharing software engineering resources and open source software across entities. In: 12th Annual Conference of Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Information and Computer Science, 23-25 Aug 2011, Belfast UK.
Aczel, James; Cross, Simon; Meiszner, Andreas; Hardy, Pascale; McAndrew, Patrick and Clow, Doug. (). Some issues affecting the sustainability of open learning courses. In: EDEN 2011 Annual Conference: Learning and Sustainability: The New Ecosystem of Innovation and Knowledge, 19-22 Jun 2011, Dublin, Ireland.
McAndrew, Patrick; Makriyanni, Elpida; Casserly, Cathy and Vollmer, Timothy. (). Planning the OER landscape. In: OCWC Global 2011: Celebrating 10 years of OpenCourseWare, 04-06 May 2011, Cambridge, MA, USA.
McAndrew, Patrick and Cropper, Karen (). Open Educational Resources and Intellectual Property Rights. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education, Moscow, Russia.
Conole, Grainne; McAndrew, Patrick and Dimitriadis, Yannis (). The role of CSCL pedagogical patterns as mediating artefacts for repurposing Open Educational Resources. In: Pozzi, Francesca and Persico, Donatella eds. Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Learning Communities: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives Hershey, USA: IGI Global.
Wilson, Tina and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Using new tools to support creative community engagement with open educational resources. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7 (4) pp. 442-462.

2010

McAndrew, Patrick and Cropper, Karen. (). Open Learning Network: the evidence of OER impact. In: Open Ed 2010: The Seventh Annual Open Education Conference, 2-4 Nov 2010, Barcelona, Spain.
Lane, Andy and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Are open educational resources systematic or systemic change agents for teaching practice?. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41 (6) pp. 952-962.
Kursun, Engin; Wilson, Tina; McAndrew, Patrick and Cagiltay, Kursat. (). Evaluating three different Open Educational Resource models provided to enable Learning in Our Connected World. In: Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 2010 AECT convention, 26-30 Oct 2010, Anaheim, California, USA.
Santos, Andreia; McAndrew, Patrick and Mendonça, Murilo. (). Cultural imperialism or multicultural mix? Promoting OER reuse through collaboration. In: Open Educational Resources 2010 (OER10), 22-24 Mar 2010, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Lane, Andrew; Connolly, Teresa; Ferreira, Giselle; McAndrew, Patrick and Wilson, Tina (). Reusing, reworking and remixing open educational resources. In: Marshall, Stewart and Kinuthia, Wanjira eds. Cases 'n' Places: Global Cases in Educational and Performance Technology Charlotte, NC: IAP - Information Age Publishing.
Kursun, Engin; Wilson, Tina; McAndrew, Patrick and Cagiltay, Kursat. (). Evaluating the current status of OpenCourseWare in Turkish Tertiary Education: Benefits, barriers and incentives. In: Open Educational Resources 2010 (OER10), 22-24 Mar 2010, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Wilson, Tina; Schuwer, Robert and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Collating global evidence of the design, use, reuse and redesign of open educational content. In: Open Educational Resources 2010 (OER10), 22-24 Mar 2010, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Kozinska, K.; Kursun, E.; Wilson, T.; McAndrew, P.; Scanlon, E. and Jones, A.. (). Are open educational resources the future of e-learning?. In: 3rd International Future-Learning Conference: Innovations in Learning for the Future, 10-14 May 2010, Istanbul, Turkey.
McAndrew, Patrick; Scanlon, Eileen and Clow, Doug. (). An Open Future for Higher Education. Educause Quarterly.
Alevizou, Panagiota; Wilson, Tina and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Conceptualising collaborative participation and engagement for learning and creativity in OER communities. In: OER10 Conference, 22-24 Mar 2010, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
McAndrew, Patrick; Taylor, Josie and Clow, Doug. (). Facing the challenge in evaluating technology use in mobile environments. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25 (3) pp. 233-249.
McAndrew, Patrick. (). Defining openness: updating the concept of “open” for a connected world. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2010 (10) pp. 1-13.

2009

Dimitriadis, Yannis; McAndrew, Patrick; Conole, Grainne and Makriyannis, Elpida. (). New design approaches to repurposing open educational resources for collaborative learning using mediating artefacts. In: ascilite 2009: Same places, different spaces, 6-9 Dec 2009, Auckland, New Zealand.
Wilson, Tina; McAndrew, Patrick; Miles, Richard and Conole, Grainne. (). Contributing evidence of choice and change when using Open Educational Resources. In: ALT-C 2009 “In Dreams Begins Responsibility”: Choice, Evidence and Change, 8-10 Sep 2009, Manchester, UK.
McAndrew, P.; Santos, A.; Lane, A.; Godwin, S.; Okada, A.; Wilson, T.; Connolly, T.; Ferreira, G.; Buckingham Shum, S.; Bretts, J. and Webb, R. (). OpenLearn Research Report 2006-2008. The Open University, Milton Keynes, England.
McAndrew, Patrick (). What is needed for global e-learning in higher education?. In: Zajda, Joseph and Gibbs, Donna eds. Comparative information Technology: Languages, Societies and the Internet Springer, pp. 49-64.
Clough, Gill; Jones, Ann; McAndrew, Patrick and Scanlon, Eileen (). Informal learning evidence in online communities of mobile device enthusiasts. In: Ally, Mohamed eds. Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training Athabasca University Press, pp. 99-112.
McAndrew, P.; Wilson, T.; Darley, S.; Malone, S. and O'Hare, D.. (). Improving methods and procedures for reuse and exchange of open educational resources. In: CAL ’09: Learning in Digital Worlds, 23-25 Mar 2009, Brighton, UK.
Wilson, Tina and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Evaluating how five Higher Education Institutions worldwide plan to use and adapt Open Educational Resources. In: International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2009), 9-11 Mar 2009, Valencia, Spain.
Wilson, Tina and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Successfully exchanging methods and processes between institutions to create Open Educational Resources. In: International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2009), 9-11 Mar 2009, Valencia, Spain.
Lane, Andrew; McAndrew, Patrick and Santos, Andreia. (). The networking effects of OER. In: 23rd ICDE World Conference 2009, 7-10 Jun 2009, The Netherlands.
Wilson, Tina; McAndrew, Patrick and Schuwer, Robert. (). Gathering evidence of the design, use, reuse and redesign of open educational content. In: ALT-C 2009: In dreams begins responsibility - Choice, evidence, and change, 8-10 Sep 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Conole, Grainne; Wilson, Tina; McAndrew, Patrick; Culver, Juliette; Brasher, Andrew and Cross, Simon. (). New methods and approaches to the design and evaluation of open educational resources. In: EDEN Annual Conference 2009, 10-13 Jun 2009, Gdansk, Poland.
McAndrew, Patrick; Godwin, Stephen and Santos, Andreia (). Research 2.0: How do we know about the users that do not tell us anything?. In: Vavoula, Giasemi; Pachler, Norbert and Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes eds. Researching Mobile Learning: Frameworks, Tools and Research Designs Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, pp. 277-288.

2008

Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy; McAndrew, Patrick and Madiba, Matete. (). Fostering Open Educational practices in cross-cultural contexts. In: IST-Africa 2008 Conference, 7-9 May 2008, Windhoek, Namibia.
Godwin, Stephen; McAndrew, Patrick and Santos, Andreia. (). Behind the Scenes with OpenLearn: the Challenges of Researching the Provision of Open Educational Resources. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 6 (2) pp. 139-148.
McAndrew, Patrick; Wilson, Tina; Malone, Sarah and O’Hare, Dave. (). Repurposing resources as open content: studying the experiences of new providers. In: ALT-C 2008: Rethinking the digital divide, 9-11 Sep 2008, University of Leeds, UK.
McAndrew, Patrick; Wilson, Tina; O'Hare, Dave and Malone, Sarah. (). Turning educational content into open content: a workshop. In: ALT-C 2008: Rethinking the digital divide, 9-11 Sep 2008, University of Leeds, UK.
McAndrew, Patrick and Wilson, Tina. (). Pocketing the difference: Joint development of open educational resources. In: ICALT 2008: The 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning, Technologies. Learning technologies in the Information society, 1-5 Jul 2008, Santander, Cantabria, Spain.
Godwin, Stephen and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Exploring user types and what users seek in an open content based educational resource. In: ED-MEDIA 2008 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, 30 Jun - 04 Jul 2008, Vienna, Austria.

2007

Clough, G.; Jones, A. C; McAndrew, P. and Scanlon, E.. (). Informal learning with PDAs and smartphones. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24 (5) pp. 359-371.
Wilson, Tina and McAndrew, Patrick (). From Africa through Germany to the UK and back again: The potential of Open Educational resources. In: McAndrew, Patrick and Watts, Jo eds. Researching open content in education Milton Keynes: OpenLearn, Open University, pp. 67-70.
Wilson, Tina and McAndrew, Patrick. (). Adapting, adopting and analysing the potential of open educational resources. In: CAL ’07 Development, disruption and debate conference, 26-28 Mar 2007, Dublin, Ireland.
McAndrew, Patrick; Santos, Andreia and Godwin, Stephen. (). Opening up for OpenLearn: issues in providing open educational resources. In: CAL07: Development, Disruption and Debate - D3, 26-28 Mar, Dublin, Ireland.

2006

Taylor, Josie; Minocha, Shailey; McAndrew, Patrick; Brasher, Andrew and Joinson, Adam. (). Smart labs and social practice: social tools for pervasive laboratory workspaces: a position paper. In: Designing for e-Science: Interrogating New Scientific Practice for Usability, in the Lab and Beyond, 26-27 Jan 2006, e-Science Institute, Edinburgh, UK.
McAndrew, Patrick; Weller, Martin and Barret-Baxendale, Mark. (). Learning Design and Service Oriented Architectures:a mutual dependency?. Journal of Learning Design, 1 (3) pp. 51-60.
McAndrew, Patrick; Goodyear, Peter and Dalziel, James. (). Patterns, designs and activities: unifying descriptions of learning structures. International Journal of Learning Technology, 2 (2-3) pp. 216-242.
Weller, Martin; Little, Alex; McAndrew, Patrick and Woods, Will. (). Learning Design, generic service descriptions and universal acid. Educational Technology and Society, 9 (1) pp. 138-145.
Jones, Ann; Issroff, Kim; Scanlon, Eileen; Clough, Gill; McAndrew, Patrick and Blake, Canan. (). Using mobile devices for learning in informal settings: is it motivating?. In: IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning, 14-16 Jul 2006, Dublin.

2005

Twining, Peter; Evans, Diane; Cook, Deirdre; Ralston, John; Selwood, Ian; Jones, Ann; Underwood, Jean; Scanlon, Eileen; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Dillon, Gayle; McAndrew, Patrick and Sheehy, Kieron. (). Should there be a future for Tablet PCs in schools?. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.
Twining, P.; Evans, D.; Cook, D.; Ralston, J.; Selwood, I.; Jones, A.; Underwood, J.; Dillon, G.; Scanlon, E.; Heppell, S.; Kukulska-Hulme, A.; McAndrew, P. and Sheehy, K. (). Tablet PCs in schools: Case study report: A report for Becta by the Open University. Becta, Coventry, UK.
Twining, P.; Cook, D.; Dillon, P.; Evans, G.; Heppell, A.; Jones, A.; Kukulska-Hulme, A.; McAndrew, P.; Ralston, J.; Scanlon, E.; Selwood, A.; Sheehy, K. and Underwood, J.. (). Tablet PCs in schools. In: CALRG-TRLG Seminar, 15 Jun 2005, Milton Keynes, UK.

2004

McAndrew, Patrick; Clow, Doug; Taylor, Josie and Aczel, James. (). The evolutionary design of a Knowledge Network to support knowledge management and sharing for lifelong learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35 (6) pp. 739-746.
McAndrew, Patrick; Brasher, Andrew and Hardy, Pascale. (). Determining Research Questions in e-learning. In: Networked Learning Conference 2004, 5-7 Apr 2004, Lancaster University, UK.
Brasher, Andrew and McAndrew, Patrick (). Human-Generated Learning Object Metadata. In: Meersman, R; Zahir, Tari and Corsaro, A eds. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2004: OTM 2004 Workshops Berlin: Springer, pp. 723-730.

2003

McAndrew, Patrick and Laurillard, Diana (). Reusable educational software: a basis for generic e-learning tasks’. In: Littlejohn, Alison eds. Reusing online resources: a sustainable approach to eLearning London, UK: Kogan Page.

2002

McAndrew, Patrick; Mackinnon, Lachlan and Rist, Roger. (). A framework for work-based networked learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13 (1) pp. 149-166.